این وبلاگ جهت اشتراک گذاری مطالب علمی و آموزشی و معرفی موضوعات مورد علاقه است.
مدیر وبلاگ : محسن قره خانی
وب سایت شخصی دکتر قره خانی
You have to learn the rules of the game. And then you have to play better than anyone else.
We're regularly contacted by people asking us 'What is a catastrophe bond?' or 'What is a cat bond?' so we thought we'd provide a simple primer on the topic. Catastrophe bonds, also called cat bonds, are an example of insurance securitization to create risk-linked securities which transfer a specific set of risks (generally catastrophe and natural disaster risks) from an issuer or sponsor to investors. In this way investors take on the risks of a specified catastrophe or event occuring in return for attractive rates of investment. Should a qualifying catastrophe or event occur the investors will lose the principal they invested and the issuer (often insurance or reinsurance companies) will receive that money to cover their losses.
Catastrophe bonds were first issued in the mid 1990's, we have a comprehensive database containing the details of nearly every (over 280) catastrophe bond transaction. Major catastrophe events which hit the U.S. such as the Northridge eartquake and Hurricane Andrew were seen as events of such magnitude that the insurance industry began to look for alternative methods to hedge their risks and through collaboration with capital markets companies catastrophe bonds were born.
One of the key elements of any catastrophe bond is the terms under which the securities begin to experience a loss. Catastrophe bonds utilise triggers with defined parameters which have to be met to start accumulating losses. Only when these specific conditions are met do investors begin to lose their investment. Triggers can be structured in many ways from a sliding scale of actual losses experienced by the issuer (indemnity) to a trigger which is activated when industry wide losses from an event hit a certain point (industry loss trigger) to an index of weather or disaster conditions which means actual catastrophe conditions above a certain severity trigger a loss (parametric index trigger).
A catastrophe bond can be structured to provide per-occurrence cover, so exposure to a single major loss event, or to provide aggregate cover, exposure to multiple events over the course of each annual risk-period.
Some catastrophe bond transactions work on a multiple loss approach and so are only triggered (or portions of the deals are) by second and subsequent events. This means that sponsors can issue a deal that will only be triggered by a second landfalling hurricane to hit a certain geographical location, for example.
The typical catastrophe bond structure sees a special purpose vehicle or insurer (SPV or SPI) enter into a reinsurance agreement with a sponsor (or counterparty), receiving premiums from the sponsor in exchange for providing the coverage via the issued securities. The SPV issues the securities to investors and receives principal amounts in return. The principal is then deposited into a collateral account, where they are typically invested in highly rated money market funds.
The investors coupon, or interest payments, are made up of interest the SPV makes from the collateral and the premiums the sponsor pays. If a qualifying event occurs which meets the trigger conditions to activate a payout, the SPV will liquidate collateral required to make the payment and reimburse the counterparty according to the terms of the catastrophe bond transaction. If no trigger event occurs then the collateral is liquidated at the end of the cat bond term and investors are repaid.
The diagram below shows a typical catastrophe bond structure including where the capital flows from one party to another.
Catastrophe modelling is vital to catastrophe bond transactions to provide analysis and measurement of events which could cause a loss as well as to define the exposed geographical region.
Catastrophe bond structures have been used to hedge risks of hurricane, earthquake, typhoon, European windstorm, thunderstorm, hail and even life insurance related risks such as longevity and health insurance claims.
Read about recent and historic catastrophe bond transactions in our Deal Directory.
Keep up with the latest catastrophe bond news on our blog.
در این سایت مطالب مفیدی راجع به اوراق بهادار بیمه ای یافت می شود.
نوع مطلب :
برچسب ها : اوراق بهادار بیمه ای،
لینک های مرتبط :
چهارشنبه 12 اردیبهشت 1397 16:46
Hello! I'm at work browsing your blog from my new apple iphone!
Just wanted to say I love reading through your blog and look forward to all your posts!
Carry on the superb work!
شنبه 24 تیر 1396 19:16
It's an remarkable piece of writing for all the web visitors; they will take benefit from it
I am sure.
چهارشنبه 13 اردیبهشت 1396 09:20
Hello there! I know this is somewhat off topic but I was wondering if you knew where
I could get a captcha plugin for my comment form? I'm using
the same blog platform as yours and I'm having trouble finding one?
Thanks a lot!
چهارشنبه 25 آذر 1394 13:39
خیلی دوست دارم تبادل لینک داشته باشم.بهم سر بزن اگه خوشت اومد تبادل انجام بده